The preceding sections have outlined some general guidelines for talking
with children about alcohol and other drugs. We can make these messages more
effective by taking into account the knowledge youngsters already have and
their readiness to learn new information at different ages.
Drug education may seem unnecessary for preschoolers, but the attitudes
and habits learned early can have an important bearing on the decisions
children make later. Three- and four-year-olds are not yet ready to learn
complex facts about alcohol and other drugs, but they can learn the
decision-making and problem-solving skills that they will need to refuse
alcohol and other drugs later. Remember that children in this age group are
not able to listen quietly for very long; they are more interested in doing
things for themselves.
It's tempting for busy parents to do things for young children because
it's quicker and easier. With a little planning, however, you can use the
learn-by-doing approach to teach your preschooler how to make decisions. Let
your child pick from a range of options that are acceptable to you. When the
choice is made, make sure your child sticks with it.
* Set aside regular times when you can give your child your full
attention. Playing together, reading a book, and taking a walk are special
times that help to build strong bonds of trust and affection between you and
* Point out to your child poisonous and harmful substances that can be
found in your home. Household products such as bleach, lye, and furniture
polish all have warning labels that you can read to your child. Keep all
household products that could harm a small child away from the place you
store foods and out of your child's reach.
* Explain how medicine can be harmful if used incorrectly. Teach your
child not to take anything from a medicine bottle unless you give it to the
child yourself or specify someone else who can give it, such as a
baby-sitter or grandparent.
* Explain why children need good food and should put only good things
into their bodies. Have your child name several good foods that he or she
eats regularly, and explain how those foods will make your child strong and
* Provide guidelines that teach your child what kind of behavior you
expect. Teach your child the basic rules of how to get along with other
children: Play fair. Share toys. Tell the truth. Treat others the way you
want them to treat you.
* Encourage your child to follow instructions. For example, invite your
child to help you cook; following a recipe--measuring ingredients, cracking
eggs, kneading dough--can help children have fun while learning about
step-by-step procedures. Playing simple board games with your child can give
practice in following instructions and rules.
* Take advantage of opportunities to use play as a way to help your child
handle frustrating situations and solve simple problems. A tower of blocks
that continuously collapses can drive a child to tears. You can offer a few
suggestions to keep the tower up, but at the same time you should ask your
child what he or she thinks is the best way to do it. Turning a bad
situation into a success reinforces a child's self-confidence.
* To help your child learn decision making in a practical way, lay out
some clothing from which the child can select what he or she wishes to wear.
Don't worry if the choices don't quite match. Let your child know that you
think he or she is able to make good decisions.
Five- to nine-year-olds usually feel good about themselves. They like
growing up, and they generally like school and all the new opportunities it
provides. They still think and learn primarily by experience, and they don't
have a good understanding of things that will happen in the future. Fact and
fantasy mingle easily; the world is seen as the child wishes it to be, and
not as it actually is. Children of this age need rules to guide their
behavior and information to make good choices and decisions.
Discussions about alcohol and other drugs must be in the here and now,
and `related to people and events the child knows about. Most children are
very interested in how their bodies work, so discussions should focus on
maintaining good health and avoiding things that might harm the body.
Adults are very important both as teachers and as role models. Children
are generally trusting, and they believe that the decisions adults make for
them are right. Helping your child know whom to trust is important. They
need to understand that just because someone tells them to do something, it
is not always right to do it By the end of the third grade, your child
-- what an illicit drug is, why it is illegal, what it looks like, and
what harm it can do:
-- how foods, poisons, medicines, and illicit drugs differ;
-- how medicines may help during illness, when prescribed by a doctor and
administered by a responsible adult, but also how medicines are drugs that
can be harmful if misused:
-- why it is important to avoid unknown and possibly dangerous objects,
containers, and substances;
-- which adults, both at school and outside, you want your child to rely
on for answers to questions or help in an emergency;
-- which foods are nutritious and why exercise is important;
-- what the school and home rules are about alcohol and other drug use;
-- how using alcohol and other drugs is illegal for all children.
· Children in this age group need to understand the family's
rules. You can explain the need for rules by talking about traffic safety
rules and school rules with which your child is already familiar.
· Emphasize the importance of good health by talking about things
people do to stay healthy, such as brushing teeth after each meal, washing
hands, eating good foods, getting plenty of rest and sleep. You can use this
discussion to contrast the harmful things that people do, such as taking
drugs, smoking, or drinking to excess.
· Discuss how TV advertisers try to persuade children to buy
their products, including high sugar/additives-loaded cereals, candy bars,
and toys named after characters in cartoon shows that children find
· Discuss illnesses with which your child is familiar and for
which prescription drugs are often necessary. Many children have had strep
throat, ear infections, flu, and colds. Discussing such illnesses can help
your child understand the difference between medicine and illicit drugs.
· Practice ways to say no with your child. Describe situations
that may make your child feel uncomfortable: being invited to ride a bike
where you do not allow your child to go, for example, or being offered
medicine or other unfamiliar substances. Give your child some responses to
use in these situations.
· Develop a "helpers" file of people your child can
rely on. Put together a phone list of relatives, family friends, neighbors,
teachers, religious leaders, and the police and fire departments. Illustrate
the list with photos. Talk with your child about the kind of help each
person on the list could provide in case of various unexpected situations,
such as being approached by strangers or losing a house key.
This is a period of slowed physical growth when typically a lot of energy
goes into learning. Children 10 to 12 years old love to learn facts,
especially strange ones, and they want to know how things work and what
sources of information are available to them. Friends--a single best friend
or a group of friends--become very important. What children this age are
interested in or will be committed to often is determined by what the group
thinks. Children's self-image is determined in part by the extent to which
they are accepted by peers, especially popular peers. As a result, a lot of
"followers" are unable to make independent decisions and choices.
This age is perhaps the most important time for parents to focus on
increased efforts at drug prevention. These late elementary school years are
crucial to decisions about the use of alcohol and other drugs. The greatest
risk for starting to smoke comes in the sixth and seventh grades. Research
shows that the earlier youngsters begin to use alcohol and other drugs, the
more likely they are to have real trouble.
Your child will need a clear no-use message, factual information, and
strong motivation to resist pressures to try alcohol and other drugs and to
reinforce the determination to remain drug free. Appropriate new information
-- ways to identify specific drugs, including alcohol, tobacco,
marijuana, inhalants, and cocaine in their various forms;
-- the long- and short-term effects and consequences of use;
-- the effects of drugs on different parts of the body, and the reasons
why drugs are especially dangerous for growing bodies; and
-- the consequences of alcohol and other illegal drug use to the family,
society, and the user.
· Create special times when you are available to talk to your
child. Try to give your child undivided attention. A walk together, dinner
in a quiet place, or a visit to the ice cream parlor after a movie are some
ways to make talking together a little easier.
· Encourage your child to participate in wholesome activities
that will allow the child to form new friendships and have fun. Sports,
Scouts, religious-sponsored youth programs, and community-sponsored youth
organizations are excellent ways for children to meet others of their own
· Teach your child to be aware of how drugs and alcohol are
promoted. Discuss how children are bombarded with messages--from TV, song
lyrics, billboards, and advertisements--that using alcohol and other drugs
is very glamorous. Clearly separate the myths from the realities of alcohol
and other drug use.
· Continue to practice ways to say no with your child,
emphasizing ways to refuse alcohol and other drugs. It is not uncommon for
sixth graders to be offered beer and cigarettes and to know other children
who smoke and drink alcohol.
· Encourage your child to join a local anti-drug club or peer
assistance group that encourages drug-free activities.
· Ask your child to scan the morning newspaper and to circle any
article that has to do with alcohol and other drug use. No doubt there will
be articles about drug-related murders, strife in other countries due to
drug trafficking, and alcohol-related auto accidents. Talk with your child
about the tremendous loss of lives and resources because of the use of
alcohol and other drugs.
· Make friends with the parents of your child's friends so that
you can reinforce one another's efforts in teaching good personal and social
habits. A neighborhood social gathering, sporting event, or school assembly
are good places to meet.
· Join with other parents in providing supervised activities for
young people to limit "free time," which often leads to
experimentation with alcohol and other drugs.
During the early teens "fitting in" with friends is a
controlling influence. In some ways, the onset of puberty is like a
"rebirth." Children want and need to let go of the past and to
find their own unique identity. This often means letting go of old
friendships and ties with teachers and other adults, as well as old ways of
doing things. The decision-making and problem- solving methods that they
learned as young children are still helpful, but young teens will be making
new decisions based on new information and new goals.
Young people this age can begin to deal with abstractions and the future.
They understand that their actions have consequences, and they know how
their behavior affects others. They sometimes have a shaky self-image: they
are not sure whether they are growing and changing adequately, they are
often in conflict with adults, they are not sure where they are headed, and
they tend to see themselves as not "okay." Strong emotional
support and a good model of adult behavior are particularly important now.
Young people who use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs typically begin
before leaving the ninth grade. Be sure that family discussions about drugs
emphasize the immediate, unpleasant effects of alcohol and other drug use.
Telling junior high school students who are smoking that they will get lung
cancer or heart disease in several decades is less likely to make an
impression than talking about bad breath, stained teeth and fingers, and
Many young people use drugs because their friends use drugs. A large
portion of your prevention efforts during these years should be spent
reinforcing your child's motivation to avoid alcohol and other drugs. Here
are some important steps:
· Counteract peer influence with parent influence. Reinforce your
no-alcohol/no-drug-use rules and expectations so that your child clearly
understands that drinking and using drugs are unacceptable and illegal.
Children may argue that "everyone is doing it" and not
experiencing any harmful effects. Inform your child that alcohol and other
drug use is illegal for children and that "everyone is not doing
it." Emphasize how unpredictable the effects of alcohol and other drugs
can be, so that although many drug users may appear to function properly,
drug use is extremely risky, and all it takes is one bad experience to
change a life.
· Get to know your child's friends and their parents. Meet your
child's friends. Invite them to your home frequently. Share your
expectations about behavior with other parents. Work together to develop a
set of rules about curfews, unchaperoned parties, and other social
· Monitor your child's whereabouts. If your child is at "a
friend's house," be sure that you know the friend and the parents. If
your child is at the movies, be sure you know what film is playing and at
which theater. Last-minute changes in plans, such as visiting a different
friend or going to a different movie, should not be permitted unless the
child checks with Mom, Dad, or another designated adult.
By the end of ninth grade your child should know:
-- the characteristics and chemical nature of specific drugs and drug
-- the physiology of drug effects on the circulatory, respiratory,
nervous, and reproductive systems;
-- the stages of chemical dependency and their unpredictability from
person to person;
-- the ways that drug use affects activities requiring motor
coordination, such as driving a car or participating in sports; and
-- family history, particularly if alcoholism or other drug addiction has
been a problem.
· Continue to practice ways to say no with your child. Teach your
child to recognize problem situations, such as being at a house where no
adults are present and young people are smoking or drinking beer. Make up
situations in which your child may be asked to try alcohol and other drugs
and let the child practice saying no using the steps outlined. Try many
variations until you are confident that your child knows how to say no.
· Children this age are very concerned about how others see them.
You can help your child develop a positive self-image by making sure that
the child looks good and feels healthy. In addition to providing
well-balanced meals, keep your refrigerator and pantry stocked with
appealing alternatives to junk food.
· Continue to spend private time with your child to discuss what
your child feels is important in his or her life right now. Your child's
fears about emerging sexuality, appearing different from friends, and going
on to high school are real problems and deserve your concern and attention.
· Periodically review and update, with your child's
participation, your house rules and your child's responsibilities regarding
chores, homework, time limit on TV watching, and the curfew on school and
weekend nights. Discuss these questions with your child: Are the rules fair
and the consequences appropriate? Is it time to switch to some new chores?
Should there be fewer or different chores because of added homework
assignments or after- school activities? Should the curfew be adjusted?
· Talk with your child about friendship. Make the point that true
friends do not ask each other to do things they know are wrong and risk harm
to themselves, their friends, or their families.
· Plan supervised parties or other activities for your child in
your home which reflect a no alcohol/no-drug-use rule. For example, have
your child invite friends to share a pizza and watch TV.
High school students are future-oriented and can engage in abstract
thinking. They have an increasingly realistic understanding of adults. Young
people therefore want adults to discuss their concerns and the ways they
solve problems and make decisions. You may have a tremendous new opportunity
to help your children at this age. At the same time, the teenagers continue
to be group-orientated, and belonging to the group motivates much of their
behavior and actions. During these years, young people often develop a
broader outlook and become more interested in the welfare of others.
By the end of high school, your child should understand:
-- both the immediate and long-term physical effects of specific drugs;
-- the possibly fatal effects of combining drugs;
-- the relationship of drug use to other diseases and disabilities;
-- the effects of alcohol and other drugs on the fetus during pregnancy;
-- the fact that drug use is not a victimless crime;
-- the effects and possible consequences of operating equipment while
using alcohol and other drugs;
-- the impact that drug use has on society; and
-- the extent of community intervention resources.
You may want to focus on the potential long-term effects of alcohol and
other drugs during these years: drugs can ruin your teen's chances of
getting into college, being accepted by the military, or being hired for
certain jobs. Your teen may also be impressed by the importance of being
seen as a good role model for a younger brother or sister.
Although young people long for independence it is particularly important
to keep them involved in the family and family activities. They should join
the rest of the family for dinner regularly, be part of family vacations,
and remain part of family routines.
· Continue to talk with your teenager about alcohol and other
drug use. Chances are your teen has friends who use alcohol and other drugs
or knows people who do. Talk about how alcohol and other drug use threatens
lives and may limit opportunities for the future.
· Plan strategies to limit your teen's unsupervised hours at
home, while you are at work. Researchers have found that lunch time and 3:00
- 6:00 p.m. are periods teenagers are likely to experiment with alcohol and
· Encourage your teenager to work on behalf of a drug prevention
program by being trained as a volunteer to answer hot-line calls or as a
· Talk with your teenager about joining a sports club, drama
club, arts and crafts center, or dance studio or about volunteering to work
for a church group or community organization. The busier your teenager is,
the less likely he or she is to be bored and to seek an outlet in alcohol or
other drugs. Volunteer with your teenager, if you have time.
· Plan alcohol- and drug-free activities with other families
during school vacations and major holidays, which can be high- risk idle
times for teens.
· Make sure your teen has access to up-to-date information on
alcohol and other drugs and their effects. Make an effort to be informed
about any new drugs that are popular, and know their effects. (For suggested
reading, see the resources section at the end of this booklet.)
· Cooperate with other parents to make sure that the parties and
social events your teenager attends are alcohol- and drug-free. Some
families choose to draw up a contract holding adults responsible for parties
given in their homes; the contract specifies that all parties will be
supervised and that there is to be no use of alcohol or other drugs. (See
"Safe Homes" in the resource section.)
· Help plan community-sponsored drug-free activities such as
alcohol and drug-free dances and other recreational activities such as
· Talk with your teenager about the future. Discuss your
expectations and your teenager's ambitions. Collect college or vocational
catalogs for your teenager, and discuss different educational and career
options. Plan a family outing to local colleges and universities.
Young people use drugs for many reasons that have to do with how they
feel about themselves, how they get along with others, and how they live. No
one factor determines who will use drugs and who will not, but here are some
· low grades or poor school performance;
· aggressive, rebellious behavior;
· excessive influence by peers;
· lack of parental support and guidance; and
· behavior problems at an early age.
Being alert to the signs of alcohol and other drug use requires a keen
eye. It is sometimes hard to know the difference between normal teenage
behavior and behavior caused by drugs. Changes that are extreme or that last
for more than a few days may signal drug use. Consider the following
* Does your child seem withdrawn, depressed, tired, and careless about
* Has your child become hostile and uncooperative?
" Have your child's relationships with other family members
* Has your child dropped his old friends?
* Is your child no longer doing well in school-- grades slipping,
* Has your child lost interest in hobbies, sports, and other favorite
* Have your child's eating or sleeping patterns changed?
Positive answers to any of these questions can indicate alcohol or other
drug use. However, these signs may also apply to a child who is not using
drugs but who may be having other problems at school or in the family. If
you are in doubt, get help. Have your family doctor or local clinic examine
your child to rule out illness or other physical problems.
Watch for signs of drugs and drug paraphernalia as well. Possession of
common items such as pipes, rolling papers, small medicine bottles, eye
drops, or butane lighters may signal that your child is using drugs.
Even when the signs are clearer, usually after the child has been using
drugs for a time, parents sometimes do not want to admit that their child
could have a problem. Anger, resentment, guilt, and a sense of failure as
parents are common reactions.
If your child is using drugs, it is important to avoid blaming yourself
for the problem and to get whatever help is needed to stop it. The earlier a
drug problem is detected and faced, the more likely it is that your child
can be helped.
First, do not confront a child who is under the influence of alcohol or
other drugs, but wait until the child is sober. Then discuss your suspicions
with your child calmly and objectively. Bring in other members of the family
to help, if necessary.
Second, impose whatever discipline your family has decided on for
violating the rules and stick to it. Don't relent because the youngster
promises never to do it again.
Many young people lie about their alcohol and drug use. If you think your
child is not being truthful and the evidence is pretty strong, you may wish
to have your child evaluated by a health professional experienced in
diagnosing adolescents with alcohol- and drug-related problems.
If your child has developed a pattern of drug use or has engaged in heavy
use, you will probably need help to intervene. If you do not know about drug
treatment programs in your area, call your doctor, local hospital, or county
mental health society for a referral. Your school district should have a
substance abuse coordinator or a counselor who can refer you to treatment
programs, too. Parents whose children have been through treatment programs
can also provide information.
The most promising drug prevention programs are those in which parents,
students, schools, and communities join together to send a firm, clear
message that the use of alcohol and other drugs will not be tolerated.
The development of strong policies that spell out rules governing use,
possession, and sale of alcohol and other drugs is a key part of any
school-based prevention program. Learn what your school's policies are and
actively support them. If your school has no policy, work with teachers,
administrators, and community members to develop one. Good school policies
typically specify what constitutes an alcohol or other drug offense, spell
out the consequences for violating the policy, describe procedures for
handling violations, and build community support for the policy.
Visit your child's school and learn how drug education is being taught.
Are the faculty members trained to teach about alcohol and other drug use?
Is drug education a regular part of the curriculum or limited to a special
week? Is it taught through the health class, or do all
teachers incorporate drug education into their subject area? Do children
in every grade receive drug education, or is it limited to selected grades?
Is there a component for parents?
If your school has an active program to prevent drug use, ask to see the
materials that are being used. Do they contain a clear message that alcohol
and other drug use is wrong and harmful? Is the information accurate and
up-to-date? Does the school have referral sources for students who need
Let other parents know about the school's policies through meetings of
the parent-teacher organization. At least one meeting each year should be
devoted to issues of alcohol and other drug use. Knowledgeable local
physicians and pharmacists can be invited to discuss how drugs affect the
growth and development of children, police officers can outline the scope
and severity of the drug problem in your community, and substance abuse
counselors can discuss symptoms of alcohol and other drug use and treatment
Help your child to grow up alcohol and drug free by supporting community
efforts to give young people healthy alternatives. Alcohol and drug-free
proms and other school-based celebrations are growing in popularity around
the country. You can help to organize such events, solicit contributions,
and serve as a chaperon.
Local businesses are also an excellent source of support for alternative
activities such as athletic teams and part-time jobs. Shops and restaurants
in one community in Texas, for example, now offer discounts to young people
who test negative for drugs in a voluntary urinalysis.
PARENT SUPPORT GROUPS
Other parents can be valuable allies in your effort to keep your child
drug free. Get to know the parents of your child's friends. Share
expectations about behavior and develop a set of mutually agreed upon rules
about such things as curfews, unchaperoned parties, and places that are
off-limits. Helping youngsters stay out of trouble is easier when rules of
conduct are clearly known and widely shared.
Build a network of other adults with whom you can talk. Join a parent
organization in your community, or talk informally with your friends about
common concerns in rearing children. Sharing experiences can provide
insights that help you deal with your child's behavior. It also helps to
know that other parents have faced similar situations.
Despite the grim stories that fill our newspapers and dominate the
evening news, most young people do not use illicit drugs, they do not
approve of drug use by their friends, and they share their parents' concern
about the dangers posed by drugs. Successful prevention efforts, whether in
a family, school, or community setting, have many elements in common: a
concern for the welfare and well being of young people, dedicated adults who
are willing to devote their time and energy, and an unwavering commitment to
being drug free.
That commitment led a small group of parents in Bowling Green, Kentucky,
to form Bowling Green Parents for Drug-Free Youth. The organization has
worked closely with the local schools and community to provide training and
education for all members of the community, and it has raised more than
$35,000 to help finance its efforts. Questionnaires administered to students
in grades 7-12 for 6 consecutive years have shown a steady decline in the
use of alcohol and other drugs.
Gall Amato, president of the Bowling Green Parents for Drug- Free Youth,
speaks persuasively about why parents must be involved in helping to prevent
alcohol and other drug use:
"People often ask me why I think parents are the answer, and I think
it's because we have the most to lose. Schools can help, churches can help,
law enforcement can help, but no one can replace the family. Being involved
with drug and alcohol prevention lets our children know that we care. It
strengthens the family and helps us to be the kind of parents our children
need us to be."
A similar commitment leads parents of students in Commodore Stockton
Skills School in Stockton, California, to donate more than 400 volunteer
hours each month helping in the classrooms. Last year a family picnic held
during Red Ribbon Week, a national drug awareness week, drew 500
participants for a day of games and activities focused on prevention of drug
In addition to helping in the classroom, Stockton parents work to
maintain discipline, to reinforce students' respect for other people, and to
foster personal responsibility at home.
As a result, behavioral problems in the school are infrequent, attendance
is high, and area police report juvenile drug arrests from every school in
the city except Commodore Stockton.
Successful efforts to rid a neighborhood of drugs are often joint
efforts. Two years ago in New Haven, Connecticut, the residents of six
housing projects joined forces to solve a neighborhood problem--drugs. The
residents were afraid for the safety of their children and sick of the
murders and other nightly violence related to drug deals.
Representing more than 1,400 families from the six projects, the group
drafted an action plan to rid the neighborhood of drugs. The residents asked
the local police to conduct "sting" operations periodically.
Members of the New Haven news media have been invited to the project, where
residents speak openly about the problems they encounter. The residents have
invited local community groups and the Greater New Haven Labor Council to
join in the fight. In addition, the mayor has become directly involved in
One member, speaking on behalf of the residents, stated its main
"We are banding together to stop this madness so that we can have a
peaceful and livable neighborhood and community." Today,
drug sales have decreased, and members of the community feel safer and more
hopeful about the future.
Alcohol consumption causes a number of changes in behavior. Even low
doses significantly impair the judgment and coordination required to drive a
car safely. Low to moderate doses of alcohol can increase the incidence of a
variety of aggressive acts, including spouse and child abuse. Moderate to
high doses of alcohol cause marked impairments in higher mental functions,
severely altering a person's ability to learn and remember information. Very
high doses cause respiratory depression and death.
Continued use of alcohol can lead to dependence. Sudden cessation of
alcohol intake is likely to produce withdrawal symptoms, including severe
anxiety, tremors, hallucinations, and convulsions. Long-term effects of
consuming large quantities of alcohol, especially when combined with poor
nutrition, can lead to permanent damage to vital organs such as the brain
and the liver. In addition, mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy may
give birth to infants with fetal alcohol syndrome. These infants may suffer
from mental retardation and other irreversible physical abnormalities. In
addition, research indicates that children of alcoholic parents are at
greater risk than other children of becoming alcoholics.
The smoking of tobacco products is the chief avoidable cause of death in
our society. Smokers are more likely than nonsmokers to contract heart
disease some 170,000 die each year from smoking-related coronary heart
disease. Lung, larynx, esophageal, bladder, pancreatic, and kidney cancers
also strike smokers at increased rates. Some 30 percent of cancer deaths
(130,000 per year) are linked to smoking.
Chronic, obstructive lung diseases such as emphysema and chronic
bronchitis are 10 times more likely to occur among smokers than among
Smoking during pregnancy also poses serious risks. Spontaneous abortion,
pre-term birth, low birth weights, and fetal and infant deaths are all more
likely to occur when the pregnant woman is a smoker.
Cigarette smoke contains some 4,000 chemicals, several of which are known
carcinogens. Perhaps the most dangerous substance in tobacco smoke is
nicotine. Nicotine is the substance that reinforces and strengthens the
desire to smoke. Because nicotine is highly addictive, addicts find it very
difficult to stop smoking. Of 1,000 typical smokers, fewer than 20 percent
succeed in stopping on the first try.
All forms of cannabis have negative physical and mental effects. Several
regularly observed physical effects of cannabis are a substantial increase
in the heart rate, bloodshot eyes, a dry mouth and throat, and increased
Use of cannabis may impair or reduce short-term memory and comprehension,
alter sense of time, and reduce ability to perform tasks requiring
concentration and coordination, such as driving a car. Motivation and
cognition may be altered, making the acquisition of new information
difficult. Marijuana can also produce paranoia and psychosis.
Because users often inhale the unfiltered smoke deeply and then hold it
in their lungs as long as possible, marijuana is damaging to the lungs and
pulmonary system. Marijuana smoke contains more cancer-causing agents than
tobacco smoke. Long-term users of cannabis may develop psychological
dependence and require more of the drug to get the same effect. The drug can
become the center of their lives.
Type: Nickname: Looks like: How it is used:
Marijuana Pot, Reefer, Dope, like dried parsley smoked or Ganja
Grass, Weed, with stems and/or eaten Mary
Jane, Sinsemilla, seeds; rolled into Bum Bud,
or Dank cigarettes
Tetrahydro- THC Soft gelatin Taken
cannabinol capsules orally
Hashish Hash Brown or black Smoked or
cakes or balls eaten
Hashish Hash Oil Concentrated syrupy Smoked mixed with liquid varying in
color from clear
The immediate negative effects of inhalants include nausea, sneezing,
coughing, nosebleeds, fatigue, lack of coordination, and loss of appetite.
Solvents and aerosol sprays also decrease the heart and respiratory rates
and impair judgment. Amyl and butyl nitrite cause rapid pulse, headaches,
and involuntary passing of urine and feces. Long-term use may result in
hepatitis or brain damage.
Deeply inhaling the vapors, or using large amounts over a short time, may
result in disorientation, violent behavior, unconsciousness, or death. High
concentrations of inhalants can cause suffocation by displacing the oxygen
in the lungs or by depressing the central nervous system to the point that
Long-term use can cause weight loss, fatigue, electrolyte imbalance, and
muscle fatigue. Repeated sniffing of concentrated vapors over time can
permanently damage the nervous system.
Type: Nickname: Looks like: How used:
Laughing gas Small 8-gram Vapors inhaled
or Whippets metal cylinder sold
with a balloon or
pipe propellant for
whipped cream in
aerosol spray can
Amyl- Poppers or clear yellowish Vapors
Nitrite Snappers liquids in ampules inhaled
Butyl- Rush, Bolt, Bullet In small bottles Vapors inhaled
Nitrite Locker Room, and
Chloro- Aerosol sprays or Aerosol paint cans Vapors inhaled
hydro cleaning fluids
Hydro Solvents Cans of aerosol Vapors
carbons propellants, gasoline inhaled
glue, paint thinner
Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system. Its immediate effects
include dilated pupils and elevated blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory
rate, and body temperature. Occasional use can cause a stuffy or runny nose,
while chronic use can ulcerate the mucous membrane of the nose. Injecting
cocaine with contaminated equipment can cause AIDS, hepatitis, and other
diseases. Preparation of freebase, which involves the use of volatile
solvents, can result in death or injury from fire or explosion.
Crack or freebase rock is extremely addictive, and its effects are felt
within 10 seconds. The physical effects include dilated pupils, increased
pulse rate, elevated blood pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite, tactile
hallucinations, paranoia, and seizure. The use of cocaine can cause death by
cardiac arrest or respiratory failure.
Type: Nickname: Looks like: How used:
Cocaine Coke, Snow, Nose candy White crystalline Inhaled, injected
Flake, Blow, Big C, powder
Lady White, and Snowbirds
Crack Crack, rock, freebase White to tan pellets Smoked
crystalline rocks that
look like soap
Stimulants can cause increased heart and respiratory rates, elevated
blood pressure, dilated pupils, and decreased appetite. In addition, users
may experience sweating, headache, blurred vision, dizziness, sleeplessness,
and anxiety. Extremely high doses can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat,
tremors, loss of coordination, and even physical collapse. An amphetamine
injection creates a sudden increase in blood pressure that can result in
stroke, very high fever, or heart failure.
In addition to the physical effects, users report feeling restless,
anxious, and moody. Higher doses intensify the effects. Persons who use
large amounts of amphetamines over a long period of time can develop an
amphetamine psychosis that includes hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia.
These symptoms usually disappear when drug use ceases.
Type: Nickname: Looks like: How used:
Amphetamines Capsules, Pills Taken orally
Speed, Uppers, Ups
Black beauties, Pep tablets injected, inhaled
Methamphetamines Crank, Crystal meth, White power, pills Taken
Crystal methedrine, rock that resembles orally,
and Speed block of paraffin injected,
Additional Ritalin, Cylert, Pills or capsules Taken orally,
Stimulants Preludin, Didrex, injected
Sandrex, and Plegine
The effects of depressants are in many ways similar to the effects of
alcohol. Small amounts can produce calmness and relaxed muscles, but larger
doses can cause slurred speech, staggering gait, and altered perception.
Very large doses can cause respiratory depression, coma, and death. The
combination of depressants and alcohol can multiply the effects of the
drugs, increasing the risks.
Regular use of depressants over time can result in physical and
psychological addiction. People who suddenly stop taking large doses can
experience withdrawal symptoms, including anxiety, insomnia, tremors,
delirium, convulsions, and death. Babies born to mothers who abuse
depressants may also be physically dependent on the drugs and show
withdrawal symptoms shortly after they are born. Birth defects and
behavioral problems also may result.
Type: Nickname: Looks like: How used:
Barbiturates Downers, Barbs, Blue red, yellow, Taken orally
Devils, Red Devils, blue, or red
Yellow Jacket, Yellows, and blue cap
Nembutal, Tuinals, capsules
Seconal, and Amytal
Methaqualone Quaaludes, Ludes, Tablets Taken orally
Tranquilizers Valium, Librium, Tablets or capsules Taken orally
Phencyclidine (PCP) interrupts the functions of the neocortex, the
section of the brain that controls the intellect and keeps instincts in
check. Because the drug blocks pain receptors, violent PCP episodes may
result in self-inflicted injuries. The effects of PCP vary, but users
frequently report a sense of distance and estrangement. Time and body
movement are slowed down. Muscular coordination worsens and senses are
dulled. Speech is blocked and incoherent. In later stages of chronic use,
users often exhibit paranoid and violent behavior and experience
hallucinations. Large doses may produce convulsions and coma, as well as
heart and lung failure.
Lysergic acid (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin cause illusions and
hallucinations. The physical effects may include dilated pupils, elevated
body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, loss of appetite,
sleeplessness, and tremors. The user may experience panic, confusion,
suspicion, anxiety, and loss of control. Delayed effects, or flashbacks, can
occur even when use has ceased.
Type: Nickname: Looks like: How used:
Phencyclidine PCP, Hog, Angel Dust Liquid, white Taken orally,
boat, Lovely, Killer crystalline injected,
weed powder, pills smoked
Lysergic LSD, Acid, Microdot Colored tablets Taken orally
acid White lighting, blue blotter paper licked off
diethylamide heaven, and Sugar clear liquid paper gelatin
cubes thin squares of and liquid
gelatin can be put in
Mescaline Mesc, Buttons, Hard brown Discs--chewed
and Cactus discs, tablets swallowed, or
Tablets and capsules-
Psilocybin Magic Fresh or Chewed and
Mushrooms, dried swallowed
Narcotics initially produce a feeling of euphoria that often is followed
by drowsiness, nausea, and vomiting. Users also may experience constricted
pupils, watery eyes, and itching. An overdose may produce slow and shallow
breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, and possible death.
Tolerance to narcotics develops rapidly and dependence is likely. The use
of contaminated syringes may result in disease such as AIDS, endocarditis,
and hepatitis. Addiction in pregnant women can lead to premature, stillborn,
or addicted infants who experience severe withdrawal symptoms.
Type: Nickname: Looks like: How used:
Heroin Smack, Horse, Mud, White to Injected,
Brown sugar, junk, dark-brown smoked, or
black tar, and Big H powder or inhaled
Codeine Empirin compound with Dark liquid Taken orally,
codeine, Tylenol with varying in injected
codeine, Codeine in thickness,
cough medicine capsules,
Morphine Pectoral syrup White Taken orally,
crystals, injected, or
Opium Paregoric, Dover's Dark brown Smoked, eaten
powder, Parepectolin chunks, or injected
Meperidine Pethidine, Demerol, White powder Taken orally, Mepergan
Other Percocet, Percodan, Tables or Taken orally,
Narcotics Tussionex, Fentanyl, capsules injected
Darvon, Talwin, and
Illegal drugs are defined in the terms of their chemical formulas. To
circumvent these legal restrictions, underground chemists modify the
molecular structure of certain illegal drugs to produce analogs known as
designer drugs. These drugs can be several hundred times stronger than the
drugs they are designed to imitate.
The narcotic analogs can cause symptoms such as those seen in Parkinson's
disease: uncontrollable tremors, drooling, impaired speech, paralysis, and
irreversible brain damage. Analogs of amphetamines and methamphetamines
cause nausea, blurred vision, chills or sweating, and faintness.
Psychological effects include anxiety, depression, and paranoia. As little
as one dose can cause brain damage The analogs of phencyclidine cause
illusions, hallucinations, and impaired perception.
Type: Nickname: Looks like: How used:
Analog of Synthetic White powder Inhaled,
Fentanyl heroin, China injected
Analog of MPTP (New White powder Inhaled,
Meperidine heroin), MPPP, injected
(Narcotic) synthetic heroin
Analog of MDMA White powder, Taken orally,
Amphetamines (Ecstasy, tablets, or injected or
or XCT, Adam, capsules inhaled
mines (Hall- MDM, STP, PMA,
ucinogens) 2, 5-DMA, TMA,
DOM, DOB, EVE
Analog of PCP, PCE White powder Taken orally
Phencyclidine injected, or
Anabolic steroids are a group of powerful compounds closely related to
the male sex hormone testosterone. Developed in the 1930's, steroids are
seldom prescribed by physicians today. Current legitimate medical uses are
limited to certain kinds of anemia, severe burns, and some types of breast
Taken in combination with a program of muscle-building exercise and diet,
steroids may contribute to increases in body weight and muscular strength.
Steroid users subject themselves to more than 70 side effects ranging in
severity from liver cancer to acne and including psychological as well as
physical reactions. The liver and cardiovascular and reproductive systems
are most seriously affected by steroid use. In males, use can cause withered
testicles, sterility, and impotence. In females, irreversible masculine
traits can develop along with breast reduction and sterility. Psychological
effects in both sexes include very aggressive behavior known as "road
rage" and depression. While some side effects appear quickly, others,
such as heart attacks and strokes, may not show up for years.
Signs of steroid use include quick weight and muscle gains (when used in
a weight training program); aggressiveness and combativeness; jaundice;
purple or red spots on the body; swelling of feet and lower legs; trembling;
unexplained darkening of the skin; and persistent unpleasant breath odor.
The authors do not endorse any private or commercial products or
services, or products or services not affiliated with the Federal
Government. The sources of information listed here are intended only as a
partial listing of the resources that are available to readers of this
booklet. Readers are encouraged to research and inform themselves of the
products or services, relating to drug and alcohol abuse, that are available
WHERE TO GET INFORMATION AND HELP
Many hospitals, community colleges, and other organizations offer classes
for parents that are designed to improve communication and understanding
between parents and children. Consult your local library, school, or
community service organization for more information.
Through its Drug Alliance, the Federal Domestic Volunteer Agency promotes
community based, volunteer drug use prevention projects for at-risk youth
and the elderly. (See your telephone Blue Pages.)
This organization is a fellowship of men and women who share their
experiences to solve a common problem (alcoholism) and to help other
alcoholics achieve sobriety. The organization is worldwide. (See your
telephone White Pages.)
Al-Anon Family Group Headquarters.
Al-Anon was established as a resource for family members and friends of
alcoholics. It is a free, nonprofessional, worldwide organization with more
than 30,000 groups. (See your telephone White Pages.)
American Council for Drug Education.
This organization provides information on drug use, develops media
campaigns, reviews scientific findings, publishes books and a newsletter,
and offers films and curriculum materials for preteens. 204 Monroe Street,
Rockville, MD 20850. Telephone 1-800488 DRUG/(301) 294-0600.
Chemical People Project.
The project supplies information in the form of tapes, literature, and
seminars. The Public Television Outreach Alliance, c/o WQED-TV, 4802 Fifth
Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. Telephone (412) 391-0900.
Families Anonymous, Inc.
This worldwide organization offers a 12-step, self-help program for
families and friends of people with behavioral problems usually associated
with drug abuse. The organization is similar in structure to Alcoholics
Anonymous. P. O. Box 528, Van Nuys, CA 91408. Telephone (818) 989-7841.
Families in Action National Drug Information Center.
This organization publishes Drug Abuse Update, a quarterly journal of
news and information for persons interested in drug prevention. $25 for four
issues. 2296 Henderson Mill Road, Suite 204, Atlanta, GA 30345. Telephone
This foundation distributes educational materials and self-help
literature for participants in 12-step recovery programs and for the
professionals who work in the field. Pleasant Valley Road, Box 176, Center
City, MN 55012-0176. Telephone 1-800-328 9000.
Institute on Black Chemical Abuse.
This institute provides training and technical assistance to programs
that want to serve African-American/ black clients and others of color more
effectively. 2614 Nicollet Avenue, Minneapolis, MN 55408. Telephone (612)
"Just Say No" Clubs.
These clubs provide support and positive peer reinforcement to youngsters
through workshops, seminars, newsletters, and a variety of activities. 1777
North California Boulevard, Suite 200, Walnut Creek, CA 94596. Telephone
1-800-258 2766/(415) 939-6666.
Nar-Anon Family Group Headquarters.
This organization operates in a manner similar to A1 Anon and supports
people who have friends or family members with drug problems. World Service
Office, P. O. Box 2562, Palos Verdes Peninsula, CA 90274. Telephone (213)
Similar to Alcoholics Anonymous, this program is a fellowship of men and
women who meet to help one another with their drug dependency problems.
World Service Office, P. O. Box 9999, Van Nuys, CA 91409. Telephone (818)
780- 3951. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information.
NCADI is a resource for alcohol and other drug information. It carries a
wide variety of publications dealing with alcohol and other drug abuse. Box
2345, Rockville, MD 20852. Telephone 1-800-SAY NOTO/(301) 468-2600.
National Council on Alcoholism, Inc.
This national voluntary health agency provides information about
alcoholism and alcohol problems through more than 300 local affiliates. 12
West 21st Street, New York, NY 10010. Telephone (212) 206-6770. National
Crime Prevention Council. This organization works to prevent crime and drug
use in many ways, including developing materials (audio visual, reproducible
brochures, and other publications) for parents and children. 1700 K Street,
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006. Telephone (202) 466-NCPC.
National Federation of Parents for Drug-Free Youth, Inc.
This organization sponsors the National Red Ribbon Campaign to reduce the
demand for drugs and the Responsible Educated Adolescents Can Help (REACH)
program designed to educate junior and senior high school students about
drug abuse. P. O. Box 3878, St. Louis, MO 63122. Telephone (314) 968-1322.
National PTA Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention Project.
Offers kits, brochures, posters, and other publications on alcohol and
other drugs for parents, teachers, and PTA organizations. 700 North Rush
Street, Chicago, IL 60611. Telephone (312) 577-4500.
This national organization encourages parents to sign a contract
stipulating that when parties are held in one another's homes they will
adhere to a strict no-alcohol/no drug- use rule. P. O. Box 702, Livingston,
This national self-help group for parents, children, and communities
emphasizes cooperation, personal initiative, and action. It publishes a
newsletter, brochures, and books, and it holds workshops. P. O. Box 1069,
Doylestown, PA 18901. Telephone 1-800 333-1069/(215) 348-7090.
1-800-COCAINE A COCAINE HELPLINE
A round-the-clock information and referral service. Recovering
cocaine-addict counselors answer the phones, offer guidance, and refer drug
users and parents to local public and private treatment centers and family
1-800-NCA-CALL NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ALCOHOLISM INFORMATION LINE
The National Council on Alcoholism, Inc., Is a national nonprofit
organization that combats alcoholism, other drug addictions, and related
problems. The council also provides referral services to families and
individuals seeking help with alcoholism or other drug problems.
1-800-622-HELP NIDA HOTLINE
NIDA Hotline is a confidential information and referral line that directs
callers to cocaine abuse treatment centers in the local community. Free
materials on drug abuse are also distributed in response to inquiries.
GENERAL READING LIST FOR PARENTS
Drug-Free Kids: A Parents' Guide, 1986. Scott Newman Center, 6255
Sunset Blvd., Suite 1906, Los Angeles, CA 90028.
Available in English and in Spanish. $6.50 plus tax for the
Kids and Drugs: A Handbook for Parents and Professionals, by Joyce
Tobias, 1987. PANDAA Press, 4111 Watkins Trail, Annandale, VA 22003. $6.90.
Peer Pressure Reversal, by Sharon Scott, 1985, reprinted 1988. Human
Resource Development Press, 22 Amherst Road, Amherst, MA 01002. $9.95.
Pot Safari, by Peggy Mann, 1982, reprinted 1987. Woodmere Press,
Cathedral Finance Station, P.O. Box 20190, New York, NY 10125. $6.95.
Preparing for the Drug-Free Years: A Family Activity Book, by J.
David Hawkins, et al., 1988. Developmental Research and Programs, Box 85746,
Seattle, WA 98145. $10.95.
Team Up for Drug Prevention with America's Young Athletes, Drug
Enforcement Administration, Demand Reduction Section, 1405 I Street, N.W.,
Washington, DC 20537. Free.
Ten Steps To Help Your Child Say "No": A Parent's Guide,
1986. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box
2345, Rockville, MD 20852. Free.
The Fact Is...Hispanic Parents Can Help Their Children Avoid Alcohol and
Other Drug Problems, 1989. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and
Drug Information, P. O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852. Free.
The Fact Is...You Can Prevent Alcohol and Other Drug Problems Among
Elementary School Children, 1988. National Clearinghouse for
Alcohol and Drug Information, P. O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852. Free.
The Fact Is...You Can Help Prevent Alcohol and Other Drug Use Among
Secondary School Students, 1989.National Clearinghouse for
Alcohol and Drug Information, P. O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20252. Free.
Young Children and Drugs: What Parents Can Do, 1987. The Wisconsin
Clearinghouse, 1954 E. Washington Avenue, Madison, WI 53704. $6.00 per 100
What Works: Schools Without Drugs, U.S. Department of Education,
1986, revised in 1989. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug
Information, Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852. Free.
GENERAL READING LIST FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
A Little More About Alcohol, 1984. Alcohol Research Information
Service, 1120 East Oakland Avenue, Lansing, MI 48906. $0.75. A cartoon
character explains facts about alcohol and its effects on the body.
Alcohol: What It Is, What It Does, by Judith S. Seixas, 1977.
Greenwillow Books, 105 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016. $5.95. An
easy-to-read illustrated primer on the use and abuse of alcohol.
An Elephant in the Living Room: The Children's Book, by Marion H.
Hyppo and Jill M. Hastings, 1984. Comp Care Publications, Box 27777,
Minneapolis, MN 55427. $6.00.
An illustrated workbook designed to help children from alcoholic homes
understand that alcoholism is a disease and that they are not alone in
coping with its effects.
Buzzy's Rebound, by William Cosby and Jim Willoughby, 1986. National
Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD
An 18-page "Fat Albert" comic book that describes the pressure
on a new kid in town to drink.
Kids and Alcohol: Get High On Life, by Jamie Rattray et al., 1984.
Health Communications, Inc. 1721 Blount Road, Suite 1, Pompano Beach, FL
33069. $5.95. A workbook designed to help children (ages 11-14) make
important decisions in their lives and feel good about themselves.
Kootch Talks About Alcoholism, by Mary Kay Schwandt, 1984. Serenity
Work, 1455 North University Drive, Fargo, ND 58102. $3.00.A 40-page coloring
book in which Kootch the worm helps young children understand alcoholism and
The Sad Story of Mary Wanna or How Marijuana Harms You, by Peggy
Mann, illustrated by Naomi Lind, 1988. Woodmere Press, P. O. Box 20190,
Cathedral Finance Station, New York, NY 10025. $2.95. A 40-page activity
book for children in grades 1-4 that contains pictures of the damage that
marijuana does to the body.
Whiskers Says No to Drugs, 1987. Weekly Reader Skills Books, Field
Publications, 245 Long Hill Road, Middletown, CT 06457. $1.50. This book
contains stories and follow-up activities for students in grades 2 and 3 to
provide information and form attitudes before they face peer pressure to
GENERAL READING LIST FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL CHILDREN
Chew or Snuff Is Real Bad Stuff. National Cancer Institute, U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services Building 31, Room 10A24, Bethesda,
MD 20892. Free. This 8-page pamphlet describes the hazards of using
Christy's Chance, 1987. Network Publications, P.O. Box 1830, Santa
Cruz, CA 95061-1830. $3.95. A story geared to younger teens that allows the
reader to make a non-use decision about marijuana.
Different Like Me: A Book for Teens Who Worry About Their Parents' Use of
Alcohol/Drugs, 1987. Johnson Institute, 7151 Metro Boulevard,
Minneapolis, MN 55435. $6.95. This 110 page book provides support and
information for teens who are concerned, confused, scared, and angry because
their parents abuse alcohol and other drugs.
Don't Lose a Friend to Drugs, 1986. National Crime Prevention
Council, 1700 K Street, N.W., 2d Floor, Washington, DC 20006. Free. This
brochure offers practical advice to teenagers on how to say "no"
to drugs, how to help a friend who uses drugs, and how to initiate community
efforts to prevent drug use.
A Gift for Life: Helping Your Children Stay Alcohol and Drug Free,
American Council on Drug Education, 204 Monroe Street, Suite 110,
Rockville, MD 20850. $29.95.
Drug-Free Kids: A Parent's Guide, 1986. Scott Newman Center, 6255
Sunset Blvd., Suite 1906, Los Angeles, CA 90028. $32.50
Say NO! to Drugs: A Parent's Guide to Teaching Your Kids How To Grow Up
Without Drugs and Alcohol, 1986.
PRIDE, The Hurt Building, 50 Hurt Plaza, Suite 210, Atlanta, GA
30303. Order No. F008S, $25.95.
WHAT PARENTS CAN DO
California Department of Justice. Drugs and Youth: An Information Guide
for Parents and Educators. Produced by the Crime Prevention
Center of the Office of the Attorney General and the Bureau of Narcotic
Enforcement, 1988. Eraser, Mark W., J. David Hawkins and Matthew O. Howard.
"Parent Training for Delinquency Prevention," in Parent
Training and Prevention Approaches. New York: Haworth Press, 1988. Johnston,
Lloyd D., Jerald G. Bachman, and Patrick M. O'Malley.
Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire Responses from the Nation's High
School Seniors. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for
Social Research, 1988 McKay, Gordon D. "Parents as Role Models"
in Parenting as Prevention: Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Use Problems
in the Family. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of
Substance Abuse and Prevention, 1989.Novello, Joseph R.
Raising Kids American Style. New York: A & W Publishers Inc.,
"Parents as Educators" in Parenting as Prevention: Preventing
Alcohol and Other Drug Use Problems in the Family. U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services, Office of Substance Abuse Prevention, 1989. U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services.
Illicit Drug Use, Smoking, and Drinking by America's High School
Students, College Students, and Young Adults, 1975-1987. Alcohol,
Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, 1988
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Press release on the 1988
National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse,
July 31, 1989.
Youcha, Geraldine, and Judith S. Seixas. Drugs, Alcohol, and Your
Children: How to Keep Your Family Substance-Free. New
York: Crown Publishers, 1989.
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES
Ames, Louise Bates, and Frances L. Ilg. Your Four Year Old: Wild and
Wonderful. (Gesell Institute of Child Development) New York: Delacorte
Ames, Louise Bates, and Frances L. Ilg. Your Three-Year Old: Friend or
Enemy? (Gesell Institute of Child Development) New York: Delacorte
Briggs, Dorothy C. Your Child's Self-Esteem. New York: Doubleday,
Garner, Alan. It's O.K. to Say No to Drugs: A Parent/Child Manual
for the Protection of Children. New York: Tom Doherty Associates, 1987.
Kantrowitz, Barbara, and Wingert, Pat. "How Kids Learn,"
Newsweek 103, no. 16 (April 17, 1989):pp-50-57.
Perkins, W. M., and N. McMurtrie-Perkins. Raising Drug-Free Kids in a
Drug-Filled World. Center City, MN: Hazelden, 1986.
Rich, Dorothy. MegaSkills: How Families Can Help Children Succeed in
School and Beyond. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1988.
Scott, Sharon. PPR: Peer Pressure Reversal. Amherst, MA: Human
Resource Development Press, Inc., 1985.
U.S. Department of Education. Drug Prevention Curricula: A Guide to
Selection and Implementation. Office of Educational Research and
WHAT TO DO IF YOUR CHILD IS USING DRUGS
Dryfoos, J. D. "Youth At Risk: One in Four in Jeopardy."
Unpublished report submitted to the Carnegie Corporation, 1987.
Hawkins, J. David, et al. Childhood Predictors of Adolescent Substance
Abuse: Toward an Empirically Grounded Theory. New York: Haworth
Kumpfer, K. L. Youth at High Risk for Substance Abuse. Rockville,
MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Drug
Abuse, 1987. (ADM 87-1537)
Newcomb, M. B., and P. M. Bentler. Consequences of Adolescent Drug
Use. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 1988.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Questions and Answers:
Teenage Alcohol Use and Abuse. National Institute on Alcohol
Abuse and Alcoholism, 1983
Werner, E. E., and R. S. Smith. Vulnerable but Invincible: A
Longitudinal Study of Resilient Children and Youth. New York:
SPECIFIC DRUGS AND THEIR EFFECTS
Petersen, Robert C. Childhood and Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Physician's
Guide to Office Practice. New York: The American Council for Drug
U.S. Department of Education. What Works: Schools Without Drugs.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Sixth Annual Report to
the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health. Rockville, MD: National
Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 1987. U.S. Department of Justice.
Drugs of Abuse. Drug Enforcement Administration, 1988.
The author wishes to thank the following persons who provided comments on
Owen S. Bubel, Ph.D., Developmental and Psychological Services Associates
Lee Dogoloff, American Council on Drug Education
Charles Flatter, Ph.D., University of Maryland
J. David Hawkins, Ph.D., University of Washington
Elizabeth Kames, National Commission on Drug Free Schools
Michael Klitzner, Ph.D., Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation
Elizabeth S. McConnell, U.S. Attorney's Office, Tampa, FL
Anne Meyer, National Federation of Parents for Drug-Free Youth
Cindi Moats, University of California, Irvine
Nelia Nadal, National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information
Katherine Powell, Alice Ferguson Foundation
Leo T. Powell, Powell and Associates
John Rosiak, National Crime Prevention Council
Sue Ruche, Families in Action
Mel Segal, Office for Substance Abuse Prevention, Department of Health
and Human Services
Nancy Simpson, Office for Substance Abuse Prevention, Department of
Health and Human Services
Joyce Tobias, PANDAA
John Van Schoonhoven, Greenbelt Center Elementary School
Manya Unger, National Parent-Teacher Association